The original matsuri in Japan is a ceremony to thank, pray, and commemorate gods, ancestors, and Buddha. There are many types of Matsuri: it can be a celebration to offer thanks for a large catch of fish, good business, health of a family, prosperity, and many more. During the event season, the focus of the Matsuri varies from region to region.
A typical Matsuri hosted by a Shinto Shrine or Buddhist Temple has local people carrying mikoshi, which represents the guardian god. These participants wear happi coats, and dance along (bon-odori dance) with the parade. Today, matsuri is held to unite the community through an event that brings young and old together. Hundreds of small and large matsuri happen throughout the year in Japan.
A matsuri has two aspects. One is a strict religious ritual and the other is a merrymaking party that allows the people carrying mikoshi to wear fundoshi (loincloth).
In the Shinto religion, the Shinto spirit rests in the Shinto shrine. During matsuri time, the Shinto spirit gets carried in the portable shrine, or mikoshi.
The Bon-odori dance is held to honour a departed soul. Bon is a midsummer Buddhist celebration honouring the souls of the dead. Members of the local community perform the Bon-odori dance around the yagura, which is set up in the centre of the matsuri.
A tower set up in the centre of a plaza at the matsuri. People play music on the yagura.
The traditional clothing worn at a matsuri is a knee- or hip-length top coat with long sleeves. It normally has a family, group, or town emblem on the back, chest, or on the collar. Happi coats are also worn at company promotions, and can also be a uniform for firefighters.
In Shishi-mai, or lion dance, a dancer dances around the matsuri wearing a lion head. Originally, this dance was used to ward off the plague and devils. Since the Edo period, it has been considered a lucky dance, and today it is performed at many festivals.